Knee Anatomy, Function and Popular Issues. Anatomical Terms

Bones for the Leg

You can find four bones across the leg: the thigh bone (femur) payday loans WV, the shin bone tissue (tibia), leg limit (patella), plus the fibula (see image towards the left):

  • Femur (thigh bone) – the longest bone tissue in your body; The circular knobs at the conclusion for the bone tissue (nearby the leg) are known as condyles. In the knee joint, the end associated with the femur is covered in hyaline (or articular) cartilage.
  • Tibia (shin bone tissue) – runs through the leg into the ankle. The top the tibia consists of two plateaus (or flat areas) which are covered in articular cartilage (in the knee joint). Connected here are a couple of C-shaped shock-absorbing cartilages called menisci. a protuberance that is knuckle-like the leading (or anterior aspect) for the leg is called the tibial tubercle. The patellar ligament(or here tendon) attaches (see below).
  • Patella (kneecap) – a semi-flat, triangular bone tissue this is certainly in a position to go because the knee bends. It’s main function is to boost the force created by the quadriceps muscle tissue (which straightens or stretches the knee). By way of example, you may not be able to straighten your knee if you break (or fracture) the patella, the quadriceps may not be able to effectively pull on the tibia and. This might be one of many major causes why patellar fractures frequently should be fixed. The patella additionally protects the knee joint from upheaval. The patella glides in the groove formed involving the two femoral condyles called the patellofemoral groove.
  • Fibula— a lengthy, slim bone tissue into the reduced leg regarding the lateral part which operates along with the tibia through the leg to your ankle. The fibula does help to carry some weight as well while about 80-90% of weight is carried by the tibia. Significantly, it functions as an accessory for muscle tissue such as the biceps femoris ( one of several hamstring muscles), lateral security ligament (see below), as well as really helps to form the rearfoot.

Ligaments within the leg

Ligaments are strong, tough bands that aren’t particularly versatile. The event of ligaments would be to connect bones to bones also to help in keeping them stable. When you look at the leg, they offer security and power to your knee joint while the bones and cartilage associated with the knee have quite small security on their particular.

  • Medial Collateral Ligament ( or perhaps the tibial collateral ligament) – attaches the side that is medial of femur to your medial region of the tibia and limitations sideways motion of the leg.
  • Lateral ligament that is collateral or the fibular security ligament) – attaches the lateral region of the femur into the lateral part for the fibula and also limits sideways movement of one’s leg.
  • Anterior ligament that is cruciate) – attaches the tibia therefore the femur. It’s located deep inside the leg plus in front side for the posterior ligament that is cruciate. It primarily acts to restrict forward movement associated with tibia relative to the femur. In addition it limits some rotation and motion that is sideways of leg. The ACL could be torn with sudden pivoting motions of this leg.
  • Posterior ligament that is cruciate) – like the ACL, it attaches the tibia while the femur. It lies behind the anterior cruciate ligament. It primarily limits backward motion associated with the tibia in accordance with the femur. Just like the ACL, moreover it limits some rotation and sideways movement for the leg. The PCL could be torn by having a landing that is forceful the shin.
  • Patellar ligament(or– tendon) attaches the kneecap into the tibia. It really is less of ligament and in actual fact a continuation regarding the quadriceps tendon.
  • Joint Capsule – a thick, fibrous structure that wraps across the knee joint. In the capsule could be the synovial membrane layer that will be lined because of the synovium, a soft tissue framework that secretes synovial fluid, the lubricanr associated with knee.

The set of collateral ligaments keeps the leg from going too much side-to-side. The cruciate ligaments crisscross one another in the center of the leg. The tibia is allowed by them to “swing” straight straight right back and forth beneath the femur minus the tibia sliding too much ahead or backward beneath the femur. Performing together, the 4 ligaments will be the most critical in structures in managing security associated with the leg.

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